By Lower S. K.
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Extra info for Atoms, Electrons and the Periodic Table (1997)(en)(36s)
The correlation is obvious; electronegativity is associated with the higher rows and the rightmost columns. Polarizability and polarizing power The symmetrical pictures of atomic electron clouds that you have seen apply only to isolated atoms and ions. In the presence of an external electrostatic field, these electron clouds will be deformed, with the electron density being concentrated toward a positive charge and away from a negative charge. Polarizability is a measure of the ease with which an external electric field is able to distort the charge cloud of an Page 35 Chem1 Atoms, electrons, and the Periodic Table atom or molecule (thus polarizability is not exclusively an atomic property).
An isoelectronic series is a sequence of species all having the same number of electrons (and thus the same amount of electron-electron repulsion) but differing in nuclear charge. The effect of increasing nuclear charge on the radius is clearly seen. Figure 10 8+ 9+ 10+ 11+ 12+ O2– F– Ne Na+ Mg2+ Relative radii of members of an isoelectronic series. Periodic trends in ion formation Chemical reactions are based largely on the interactions between the most loosely bound electrons in atoms, so it is not surprising that the tendency of an atom to gain or lose electrons is one of its fundamental chemical properties.
All that matters is the net force, the difference between the nuclear attraction and the totality of the electron-electron repulsions. Page 28 Chem1 Atoms, electrons, and the Periodic Table We can simplify the shell model even further by imagining that the valence shell electrons are the only electrons in the atom, and that the nuclear charge has whatever value would be required to bind these electrons as tightly as is observed experimentally. Because the number of electrons in this model is less than Z, the required nuclear charge will also be smaller.