By Chung Bon-chu, Hu Meng-Chun (auth.), Chawnshang Chang (eds.)
Androgen Receptors is the main finished and recent quantity at the subject, together with discussions of the elemental mechanisms of androgen-androgen receptor activities, their roles within the androgen-related illnesses, and their capability medical applications.
Key themes coated contain:
-The discovery and cloning of the androgen receptor;
-Androgen receptor coregulators;
-Androgen similar genes and their consensus DNA reaction parts;
-Basic mechanism of motion together with useful analyses, mobile localization and phosphorylation reviews;
-Cross-talk to different sign transduction structures;
-The fresh connections of androgens to women's ailments, similar to osteoporosis and ovarian cancer.
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Extra info for Androgens and Androgen Receptor: Mechanisms, Functions, and Clinical Applications
1996). It is possible that in the case of AR, the Nl-l--terminal performs the function of stabilizing the ligand-bound LBD directly and coactivators that interact with the AF-2 domain of other nuclear receptors interact differently with AR . , 1999). MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF AR TRANSCRIPTION Ligand stimulation of AR transcriptional activity requires AR interaction with a wide variety of cellular proteins that facilitate AR conformation, nuclear localization, DNA binding, and interaction with the basal transcriptional machinery.
Once antibodies to steroid receptors became available, immunocytochemistry was used to demonstrate that the subcellular localization of steroid receptors in the absence of their cognate ligand differed among receptors. , 1995). , 1999). , 1984). The subcellular localization of AR in the absence of androgen is less clear. , 1993). , 1993). , 1991). , 1991). These observations suggest that in vivo, AR may be localized predominantly to the nucleus irrespective of hormonal exposure similar to ER and PR.
It is possible that an increase in ARA24/Ran results in a more rapid return of importins to the cytoplasm increasing the efficiency of translocation of proteins into the nucleus . ARA24/Ran also exports mRNA complexed with ribonuclear proteins (Gorlich and Kutay, 1999) and therefore an elevation of ARA24/Ran could enhance the export of AR mRNA to the cytoplasm for translation. It is also possible that accelerated export of nuclear AR results in more efficient receptor recycling and thus a greater responsiveness to androgen.