By Frank A Kmietowicz

There have been varied sizes of bulwarks

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However, once material has been discarded, it is susceptible to modification Hunters and gatherers in the archaeological record 37 by a number of natural processes such as burial or erosion, movement or, ultimately, destruction. At the regional level these processes play an important role in determining the location of sites. For example, home bases are unlikely to be located in unstable environments such as flood plains, areas of wind blow or caves where roof falls are common. Such situations lead to rapid burial and preservation, but the sites preserved are more likely to be shortterm scenes of activity where such dangers would have mattered less.

Social relations are difficult to identify in the archaeological record but in a few cases it is possible for something to be inferred. It is well known that the development of increasingly complex social structures is a mechanism by which animals, including people, deal with the stresses of population pressure, be it the pecking order in a hen house or the complex class structure of a modern state. Most huntergatherer groups are organized at the level of the co-resident group, or band, and social organization outside the family structure is weak and temporary.

6 Hunter-gatherers distribute themselves across the landscape according to the distribution of resources. Where resources are evenly distributed hunter-gatherers will be found in small evenly spaced groups, but where resources are clumped, aggregations of population may be expected. 7 Hunter-gatherers will tend to seek the nutritionally most valuable foods that can be obtained for the least effort. Exceptions to this proposition occur when other benefits, perhaps of a social kind, can be obtained by following a strategy which does not maximize calorific return.

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