By Edward Harper Parker

The upshot of it was once that during 771 B.C. the Emperor used to be killed via the Tartars in conflict, and it was once purely by means of securing the army suggestions of the semi-Tartar Warden of the Marches that the imperial dynasty used to be kept. because it used to be, the Emperor's capital was once completely moved east from the instant neighbourhood of what we name Si-ngan Fu in Shen Si province to the speedy neighbourhood of Ho-nan Fu within the sleek Ho Nan province; and as a gift for his prone the Warden used to be granted approximately the complete of the unique imperial patrimony west of the Yellow River bend and on either side of the Wei Valley. This was once additionally within the 12 months 771 B.C., and this can be particularly one of many nice pivot-points in chinese language historical past, of equivalent weight with the just about contemporaneous founding of Rome, and the slow substitution of a Roman centre for a Greek centre within the improvement and civilization of the a ways West.

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On the other hand, it is unfortunate that what may be called the philosophy of history has never been seized by the Chinese mind: the annalists do not trouble themselves with the rights and aspirations of the masses; the results to general policy that naturally follow upon increase of population, perfecting of arms and munitions of war, admixture of foreign blood with the body politic, and such like matters. The heads of events being noted, it seems to be left to the reader to fill in the details from his imagination, and from his knowledge of contemporary affairs.

Nominally the Emperor was direct suzerain lord of all vassals, great or small; but in practice the greater vassal princes seem to have been what in the Norman feudal system were called "mesne lords"; that is, each one was surrounded by his own group of minor ruling lords, who, in turn, naturally clung for protection to that powerful magnate who was most immediately accessible in case of need; thus vassal rulers might be indefinitely multiplied, and there is some vagueness as to their numbers. Just as the oldest civilizations of the West concentrated themselves along the banks of the Euphrates and the Nile, so the most ancient Chinese civilization is found concentrated along the south bank of the Yellow River.

For the present we ignore them, as, even if true, these events have had, and have now, no specific or definite influence whatever on the question of Chinese political development as expounded here.

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