By H. Gray

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Sample text

A long bone consists of a shaft and two extremities. The shaft, or diaphysis, is a hollow cylinder, the central cavity being termed the medullary canal; the wall consists of dense, compact tissue of considerable thickness in the middle part of the shaft, but becoming thinner toward the extremities; Long Bones. the cancellous tissue is scanty. The extremities, or epiphyses, are generally expanded, for the purposes of articulation and to aiTord broad surfaces for muscle attachment. They are usually developed from separate centres of ossification termed epiphyses, and consist of cancellous tissue surrounded by a thin layer of compact bone.

Lacunse, canaliculi, and osteoblasts are present. Lining the marrow cavity surface of the bone is a membrane, the endosteum, that resembles ' the periosteum in structure, but is not cjuite so prominent. The osteoblasts are irregular, flattened, stellate masses of protoplasm, possessing a number of processes. The protoplasm is granular, and each cell contains a large and distinct nucleus. GENERAL ANATOMY OF THE SKELETON 40 Osteoblasts are met with in the deeper layer of the periosteum, in the endosteum, and in the lacunae.

Spi. PerimeduUary lamelte. ) but the layers of different systems cross at va rious angles. Between these layers are small, irregular spaces called lacunae; and extending radially nut from the lacunte and piercing the various The lacuna nearest lamellas are delicate canals known as canaliculi, which connect the lacuna?. to the Haversian canal communicates with it by means of canaliculi; and canaliculi also communicate with other Haversian systems. The Haversian canal contains bloodvessels— an artery The vessel in the canal is covered with endothelial cells, and the or a vein, or both and a nerve.

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