By Francesco Collamati

This thesis makes a speciality of a unique radio-guided surgical procedure approach for whole tumor resections. It describes all points of the intraoperative probe, in addition to trying out and simulation of the radical approach. The presentation develops the process from the preliminary thought to practical feasibility reviews which have been the topic of a statement of the yank Society of Nuclear drugs. only a 12 months after finishing this paintings, the approach has now been validated for the 1st time on a meningioma sufferer, confirming the entire predictions made during this thesis.

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Despite being a comprehensible indication, it is a quiet tricky one in the context of a probe for Radio Guided Surgery, in which the size of the object to detect is not known a-priori, and there is instead great variability in it. This study then enforces the idea to develop a “multi-probe system”, composed by for example two different probes: a larger one to detect wider tumors, and a smaller one to detect residuals. 3 Shielding Optimization The other component of the probe strongly influencing both performance and dimensions is the shielding, that constitutes also the housing for the detector, as seen in Sect.

2 First Probe Prototypes 43 tumor-spotting capability. The optimization of such lateral shielding will be discussed in Sect. 1. 2 Comparison Between Data and Simulation In order to compare the results from the FLUKA simulation with the experimental data, a calibration is needed. In fact, when taking into account scintillation, simulated energy spectra in the detector are given as histogram of the number of optical photons reaching the PMT surface (npmt). Thus, all spectra shapes and rate calculations are related to this quantity: rates are infact obtained by integrating the number of entries above a certain threshold expressed in npmt unit.

26 2 The FLUKA Monte Carlo Code References 1. The Beginning of the Monte Carlo Method. Special Issue (Los Alamos: Los Alamos Science, 1987) 2. G. , The fluka code: description and benchmarking, in Proceedings of the Hadronic Shower Simulation Workshop 2006, Fermilab, 6–8 Sept 2006 (2007), pp. 31–49 3. V. Vlachoudis, FLAIR: a powerful but user friendly graphical interface for FLUKA, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Mathematics, Computational Methods and Reactor Physics, (Saratoga Springs, New York, 2009) Chapter 3 Design and Tests of the Probe Among the possible implementation of the β − probe described in Sect.

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