By Weiming Xia, Huaxi Xu

Within the look for an efficient remedy for Alzheimer's sickness, APP is a special version protein that illustrates the wide variety of simple and complicated characterization recommendations on hand. Exploring a number of organic strategies to explain the constitution and serve as of this transmembrane protein, this article provides each one strategy with certain, step by step protocols to accomplish reproducible effects and supply a framework for learning different membrane proteins.

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Fenton, H. et al. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF/SF) in Alzheimer’s disease. Brain Res. 779, 262, 1998. 23. Leveugle, B. et al. Heparin oligosaccharides that pass the blood–brain barrier inhibit beta-amyloid precursor protein secretion and heparin binding to beta-amyloid peptide. J. Neurochem. 70, 736, 1998. 24. Rossjohn, J. et al. Crystal structure of the N-terminal, growth factor-like domain of Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein. Nature Struct. Biol. 6, 327, 1999. 25. Hilbich, C. et al. Amyloid-like properties of peptides flanking the epitope of amyloid precursor protein-specific monoclonal antibody 22C11.

4. Kang, J. et al. The precursor of Alzheimer’s disease amyloid A4 protein resembles a cell-surface receptor. Nature 325, 733–736, 1987. 5. Goate, A. et al. Segregation of a missense mutation in the amyloid precursor protein gene with familial Alzheimer’s disease. Nature 349, 704–706, 1991. 6. Hendriks, L. et al. Presenile dementia and cerebral haemorrhage linked to a mutation at codon 692 of the β-amyloid precursor protein gene. Nature Genet. 1, 218–221, 1992. 7. Levy, E. et al. Mutation of the Alzheimer’s disease amyloid gene in hereditary cerebral hemorrhage, Dutch-type.

USA 95, 6460, 1998. 5. E. et al. Effect of increased glycogen synthase kinase-3 activity upon the maturation of the amyloid precursor protein in transfected cells. Neuroreport 8, 639, 1997. fm Page 27 Wednesday, November 3, 2004 2:59 PM 6. Bouillot, C. et al. Axonal amyloid precursor protein expressed by neurons in vitro is present in a membrane fraction with caveolae-like properties. J. Biol. Chem. 271, 7640, 1996. 7. Ehehalt, R. et al. Amyloidogenic processing of the Alzheimer beta-amyloid precursor protein depends on lipid rafts.

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