By National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements

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Additional resources for A Handbook of Radioactivity Measurements Procedures: With Nuclear Data for Some Biomedically Important Radionuclides

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In contrast to argon ions, alcohol ions dissociate and do not produce photoelectrons when neutralized at the cathode. Therefore, multiple pulsing is avoided. However, the alcohol ions dissociate upon being neutralized and when the supply of alcohol is exhausted, after some lo8 counts, poor plateau characteristics result. Halogen vapors also have the same quenching effect (Liebson and Friedman, 1948; Friedman, 1949). As the halogen molecular ions do not remain dissociated, these counters have very long lives.

Counter pulses due to a beta-particle spectrum vary in size, by a factor of 1,000 or more when the counter is operated a t elevated pressure. , 1967). A characteristic that is used to measure the performance of a gaseous multiplication counter in the proportional region is the so-called plateau of the counter. As the applied voltage is increased, the increasing gas gain permits the triggering of the circuit discriminator by lower-energy primary ionizing events in the counter. When the applied 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 QUANTUM ENERGY OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION.

The most powerful of these direct methods is probably that of coincidence counting (Geiger and Werner, 1924; Dunworth, 1940; NCRP, 1961; Herceg Novi, 1973). This method is applicable to all radionuclides decaying by the emission of two or more coincident radiations. 4) can be used to determine the efficiency of the detectors of the two coincident radiations, and thence to calculate the activity of the radionuclide in question. In the case of 'OCo, the activity may be determined either by beta-gamma coincidence counting of the '%o beta particles and the 60Nigamma rays, or by gamma-gamma coincidence counting of the two 60Ni gamma rays in cascade.

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