By HIRUT WOLDEMARIAM
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Additional info for A GRAMMAR OF HARO (OMOTIC) WITH COMPARATIVE NOTES ON THE OMETO LINGUISTIC GROUP
Go / will go’ ‘They go / will go’ The phonological and grammatical word in Haro Since a word is the central element in a language, this section attempts to characterize words in Haro. The word ‘word’ is used in various and ambiguous ways in different linguistic discourses (see for instance, Lyons (1968), Matthews (1991:208)). Considering the existing problem on the definition of ‘word’, Dixon and Aikhenvald (2002:2-6) suggest the following distinctions. - 35 - It is important to make certain fundamental distinctions: between a lexeme and its varying forms; between an orthographic word and other types of words; between a unit primarily defined on grammatical criteria and one primarily defined on phonological criteria.
This may be because the domain of tone-accent marking requires at least two syllables to show contrast in tone-accent: 27) [šeem] 'a kind of pest' [miss] 'cattle' [šoš] 'snake' Exceptional monosyllabic forms assigned high ‘tone-accent’ are the vocative pronouns, dóó ‘you’ (Mas) and déé 'you’ (Fem). 0. Disyllabic nominals The majorities of nominals in Haro are disyllabic and bear a high tone-accent on the penultimate syllable, as illustrated below: 28) bálle zó a wási bíínne súússi kúše gáárma zíízo tólko óta ‘leaf’ ‘chest’ ‘water’ ‘mosquito’ ‘blood’ ‘hand’ ‘lion’ ‘bee’ ‘hyena’ ‘calabash’ áro šúgo páča lápa čolólo gússi dóóma háta méla pás’a ‘big’ ‘soft/young’ ‘wide’ ‘weak’ ‘deep’ ‘small’ ‘tilted’ ‘short’ ‘dry’ ‘healthy’ In few cases, the ultimate syllable may bear a high tone-accent.
It is unlikely that TVs with verb stems and TVs that occur with simple noun stems that have no verbal counterparts, to be accidental homonyms. In both cases, the out put of the process is a noun stem. That the TVs in simple nouns behave independently from the root is an already attested fact (cf: Hayward 1987). As will be shown in the coming sections, a tendency of phonologically conditioned predictability of TVs is observed in both simple nouns as well as nouns with verbal counterparts. One can therefore suggest that TVs are kind of noun class markers occurring with all nouns whether the nouns have verbal counterpart or not.